Markus successfully defended his Ph.D. thesis, titled, On thermodynamic and kinetic constraints in autotrophic metabolism. The defense was held in person at SciLifeLab. The opponent was Professor Bas Teusink of Vrije University Netherlands, and the committee was Marija Cvijovic of Gothenburg University, Kirstin Gutekunst of University Kassel, and Daniel Machado of NTNU Trondheim. The defense featured discussion about metabolic control theory, different model types, cyanobacteria metabolism, and the definition of cell, "fitness." Thanks to the committee, and congratulations to Markus!